用sql察看数据库结构

by Weijie JIN on

有时候我们没办法用查询分析器或者企业管理器访问数据库,查看数据库结构,这时候,我们可以用sql语句查询出表结构:
sql语句:

使用于sql server 2000

select
     ( case when a.colorder = 1 then d.name else '' end ) 表名,
     a.colorder 字段序号,
     a.name 字段名,
    ( case when COLUMNPROPERTY (a.id,a.name,'isidentity') = 1 then '√' else '' end ) 标识,
     ( case when (
            select count(*) from sysobjects
                where name in (
                    select name from sysindexes                   where (id = a.id ) and ( indid in
                       (select indid from sysindexkeys where
                            ( id = a.id ) and ( colid in (
                                select colid from syscolumns
                                   where ( id = a.id ) and ( name = a.name ))))))
                   and ( xtype ='PK')) > 0 then '√' else '' end ) 主键,
   b.name 类型,
   a.length 字节数,    COLUMNPROPERTY ( a.id,a.name ,'PRECISION' ) as 长度,
    isnull ( COLUMNPROPERTY ( a.id,a.name ,'Scale'),0) as 小数位数,
   (case when a.isnullable = 1 then '√' else '' end ) 允许空,
   isnull ( e.text,'') 默认值,
   isnull (g.[value],'' ) as 字段说明
from syscolumns a left join systypes b
on a.xtype = b.xusertype
inner join sysobjects d
on a.id = d.id and d.xtype='U' and d.name <> 'dtproperties'
left join syscomments e
on a.cdefault = e.id
left join sysproperties g
on a.id = g.id and a.colid = g.smallid
--where a.name like '%status%'
order by a.id ,a.colorder   

 

sql 2005:

SELECT
    TableName=CASE WHEN C.column_id=1 THEN O.name ELSE N'' END,
    TableDesc=ISNULL(CASE WHEN C.column_id=1 THEN PTB.[value] END,N''),
    Column_id=C.column_id,
    ColumnName=C.name,
    PrimaryKey=ISNULL(IDX.PrimaryKey,N''),
    [IDENTITY]=CASE WHEN C.is_identity=1 THEN N'√'ELSE N'' END,
    Computed=CASE WHEN C.is_computed=1 THEN N'√'ELSE N'' END,
    Type=T.name,
    Length=C.max_length,
    Precision=C.precision,
    Scale=C.scale,
    NullAble=CASE WHEN C.is_nullable=1 THEN N'√'ELSE N'' END,
    [Default]=ISNULL(D.definition,N''),
    ColumnDesc=ISNULL(PFD.[value],N''),
    IndexName=ISNULL(IDX.IndexName,N''),
    IndexSort=ISNULL(IDX.Sort,N''),
    Create_Date=O.Create_Date,
    Modify_Date=O.Modify_date
FROM sys.columns C
    INNER JOIN sys.objects O
        ON C.[object_id]=O.[object_id]
            AND O.type='U'
            AND O.is_ms_shipped=0
    INNER JOIN sys.types T
        ON C.user_type_id=T.user_type_id
    LEFT JOIN sys.default_constraints D
        ON C.[object_id]=D.parent_object_id
            AND C.column_id=D.parent_column_id
            AND C.default_object_id=D.[object_id]
    LEFT JOIN sys.extended_properties PFD
        ON PFD.class=1
            AND C.[object_id]=PFD.major_id
            AND C.column_id=PFD.minor_id
--             AND PFD.name='Caption'  -- 字段说明对应的描述名称(一个字段可以添加多个不同name的描述)
    LEFT JOIN sys.extended_properties PTB
        ON PTB.class=1
            AND PTB.minor_id=0
            AND C.[object_id]=PTB.major_id
--             AND PFD.name='Caption'  -- 表说明对应的描述名称(一个表可以添加多个不同name的描述)

    LEFT JOIN                       -- 索引及主键信息
    (
        SELECT
            IDXC.[object_id],
            IDXC.column_id,
            Sort=CASE INDEXKEY_PROPERTY(IDXC.[object_id],IDXC.index_id,IDXC.index_column_id,'IsDescending')
                WHEN 1 THEN 'DESC' WHEN 0 THEN 'ASC' ELSE '' END,
            PrimaryKey=CASE WHEN IDX.is_primary_key=1 THEN N'√'ELSE N'' END,
            IndexName=IDX.Name
        FROM sys.indexes IDX
        INNER JOIN sys.index_columns IDXC
            ON IDX.[object_id]=IDXC.[object_id]
                AND IDX.index_id=IDXC.index_id
        LEFT JOIN sys.key_constraints KC
            ON IDX.[object_id]=KC.[parent_object_id]
                AND IDX.index_id=KC.unique_index_id
        INNER JOIN  -- 对于一个列包含多个索引的情况,只显示第1个索引信息
        (
            SELECT [object_id], Column_id, index_id=MIN(index_id)
            FROM sys.index_columns
            GROUP BY [object_id], Column_id
        ) IDXCUQ
            ON IDXC.[object_id]=IDXCUQ.[object_id]
                AND IDXC.Column_id=IDXCUQ.Column_id
                AND IDXC.index_id=IDXCUQ.index_id
    ) IDX
        ON C.[object_id]=IDX.[object_id]
            AND C.column_id=IDX.column_id

-- WHERE O.name=N'要查询的表'
ORDER BY O.name,C.column_id   

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